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The inline piston type pump shown in (Fig. 3) has a series of pistons arranged in a circular pattern within a cylinder block. The engines rotary motion is transferred to the cylinder block by the shaft. The ends of the pistons contact a circular plate held at an angle. As the cylinder block rotates, the pistons are pushed into their bores, where they pressurize oil in the cylinder. The pressurized oil flows through passages from the ends of the cylinders to a hydraulic motor.

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Inline piston motors (Fig. 4) are constructed like the pump, and in many instances use identical parts. Oil passages at the ends of the cylinders transport the pressurized oil to the
ends of the motor pistons.

The opposite ends of the pistons contact a stationary plate fixed at an angle. The pressure in the cylinder causes the piston to slide across the angled face resulting in movement of the cylinder  block. The rotational energy is transmitted through the motor housing by a drive shaft to move the tractor.

During the second half of the pump rotation, the pistons withdrawing into their cylinders create a negative pressure (or vacuum) which allows the oil which is not under pressure during the second half of the motor rotation, to return to the cylinder. In effect, oil is constantly flowing from pump to motor under positive pressure, and returning from motor to pump under negative pressure.

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[Source: Simplicity publication, Hydraulic Systems Training Information, #840172, Principles and Operation of Tractor Hydraulic Systems]



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